There are four main types of loop systems.

A geothermal system uses a series of underground pipes called "loops."

Vertical Loops

Horizontal Loop

Pond Loop

Open Loop

Vertical Loop

This is the most commonly installed loop system, advantageous when space is limited. Equipment is used to drill holes four inches wide and between 100 and 400 feet deep.

Horizontal Loop

Excavation equipment is used to create trenches for the loops: 100- to 440-feet long and 5-6 feet below the frost line for consistent temperatures.

Pond Loop

Utilized when a body of water is available. Coils of pipe are placed on the bottom of the pond.

Open Loop

Instead of circulating a solution, this system uses groundwater for the heat exchange process, then directs it into drainage after use.